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Virtually All Bushongs are Related
and Connected by DNA
To One Colonial Immigrant



By Rick Bushong
Originally Published: March 5. 20121
Expanded and Updated: June 2014
Updated: July 2015



Titled DNA Fragmentation



Down through the generations, there's always been family genealogists who believed the Bushong Family, consisted of literally dozens of family lines, with numerous immigrants arriving on American shores throughout the Colonial period. Then, in 2011, as a result of a couple of large scale charting projects, things changed. The entire Find a Grave listings and subsequently the entire 1930 U. S. Census, for the surname, Bushong and its variant spelling, Bushon, were charted. Upon completion, it became apparent that virtually all Bushongs were descended from one of two known Bushong lines. 2;3;4

       Those lines were the Colonial immigrant families of Hans John Bushong and Andrew Bushong. Both families had immigrated in the 18th century to Colonial America.3;4 Hans John Bushong arrived in 1731 on the Ship Brittania, as Hans Boschung. Andrew had arrived in 1754 in Delaware, on the Ship Recovery, as Andreas Bushon.5;6 Of course, there was still the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Andreas/Andrew Bushong/Boschung, the son of Johann Nicholas Boschung, who arrived in Philadelphia in 1732, on the Pink "John and William."7 Though he was considered by many, to be the same Andrew, the fact of two different arrivals caused just enough doubt to keep it from being completely accepted.

But, in late 2011 and early 2012, a DNA 37 Marker DNA test was taken by six descendants, four descended from Hans John Bushong, and two descended from Andrew Bushong.8 The testing was done at Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), in Houston, Texas.9 FTDNA, a commercial venture, was founded in 1999 by Bennett Greenspan.

When the results were finalized and compared, all six descendant's DNA matched. Every one of their 37 markers matched each other. The resulting 37 of 37 marker match, is likened to a Home run in DNA testing, proving all participants are closely related. In one participant, there was a small variation, the result of a naturally occurring gene mutation, and this did not affect the results of the test.8 Subsequently, three additional donors participated who matched, making a total of nine participants, that are proven related.

Since the evidence showed all the participants to be related, it proved that the two Bushong Lines were indeed from one line - one family tree. The only Colonial American immigrant Bushong Family. Both Hans John and Andrew descend from the same man, a shared common ancestor.

How the Conclusions Were Made

The Markers

Bushong DNA marker by marker

The two components of DNA test results are the findings for each of the markers and from an SNP test, the determination of a haplotype, and its subsequent haplogroup. That is what FTDNA provides. Next is a comparison of the results with all the participants to establish common ancestors within the familial and surname lines. By incorporating the DNA results with known genealogy, the relationship is clear. Shown in the chart (below) are the results of the test, marker by marker for the nine Bushong men.

Panel 1 (1-12)
Marker
DYS393
DYS390
DYS19**
DYS391
DYS385
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389I
DYS392
DYS389II***
Value
13
25
16 or 17
10
11-14
12
12
10
13
11
29
Panel 2 (13-25)
Marker
DYS458
DYS459
DYS455
DYS454
DYS447
DYS437
DYS448
DYS449
DYS464
Value
14
9-9 or 9-10
11
12
24
14
20
33
12-12-15-15
or 12-12-15-16
Panel 3 (26-37)
Marker
DYS460
Y-GATA-H4
YCAII
DYS456
DYS607
DYS576
DYS570
CDY
DYS442
DYS438
Value
11 or 12
11
12-23
or 19-23
16
16
18
18
32-40 or 32-33 or
33-33 or 31-41
12 or 13
11
The results for the nine Bushong participants8;11

The Haplogroup

The other test completed, was a SNP test, and it established that the participant's ancestry was from the R-M512 Haplogroup. Haplogroups represent distinctions in evolution on a molecular level, and consist of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor. Each haplotype in the group carries the identical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation. The R-M512 Haplogroup, which also called R1a1a (designation being replaced) is the mutation that differentiates the Boschung haplogroup, occurred around 18,500 years ago, sometime after an 80,000 year long ice age began to wane.11;12

A 37 of 37 Marker Match


"Your perfect match means you share a common male ancestor with a person who shares your surname (or variant). Your relatedness is extremely close with the common ancestor predicted, 50% of the time, in 5 generations or less and with a 90% probability within 16 generations. Very few people achieve this close level of a match. All confidence levels are well within the time frame that surnames were adopted in Western Europe."
Source: FTDNA5




The chart provided by FTDNA -All rights reserved.
      
Determining a Most Recent Common Ancestor

An FDA microbiologist prepares DNA samples for testing.
       FTDNA states the participants are all extremely closely related. But how many generations back? Go back far enough, and everyone is related, so the most recent ancestor they descend from needs to be determined. That ancestor is fittingly called the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA). From the FTDNA chart, it shows a 90% probability there is an MRCA within 8 generations of each person tested and 95% within 10 generations. Generally speaking a perfect match of 37 markers means a lesser number of generations before an MRCA.

But the potential MRCA needs to be determined using one of two ways. By estimating the number of years each generation lived, known as TMRCA, which is not as accurate, or it can be determined by referring to an established pedigree. This is where the Bushong genealogy comes in, because without it, DNA analysis can provide very little evidence. Proven Bushong genealogy has Hans Boschung arriving in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1731 and the next year Johann Nicholas Boschung with his son Andrew. As mentioned, most genealogists have assumed that the two were brothers, but it wasn't proven. But based on that assumption, their father should be the target ancestor for the MRCA. In the past, the MRCA was simply called "Father Boschung" the Paterfamilias. But recent advances in Bushong genealogy have identified Hans John Bushong III and his wife, Anna Maria as the father of Johann Nicholas Bushong and as will be seen, Hans John Bushong IV (the 1731 immigrant). Read article. Hans John III is now proven to have immigrated to Pennsylvania, over 12 years prior to Hans John IV and Johann Nicholas. Armed with this information and existing genealogy, it is now possible, to determine the generational gap between the participants and the targeted MRCA, Hans John Bushong III. But who were the participants?

The Participant's Genealogy

Descended From Hans John Bushong3

Fred Bushong/ Jack Melville Bushong and Virginia Gunn/ Charles Alvin Bushong and Lila Mae Wood/ James Alvin Bushong and Adaline Mary Barrett/ Joseph Long Bushong and Lydia Ann Zaring/ Jonathan Bushong and Mary M. Cordy/ Henry W. Bushong and Barbara Lohr/ Hans Phillip Bushong and Anna Eva Hergart/ Hans John Bushong and Barbara Bushong (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Herbert Bushong/ Herbert Isaac Bushong and Clara Loutisa Browning/ William Orvil Bushong and Mary Helen Booth/ Thomas Jackson Bushong and Annna Augusta Tompkins/ Isaac F. Bushong and Sarah Ann Mort/ Andrew Bushong and Elizabeth Calvert/ John Bushong and Elizabeth Sprinkel/ Hans John Bushong and Barbara Bushong (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.


      

       Gary Bushong/ Ralph Garber Bushong and Ada Marie Calhoun/ Samuel Clarence Bushong and Bertha A. Garber/ Abraham Bushong and Catherine Jane Ryman/ Philip Bushong and Mary Henrietta Knop/ Peter Bushong and Barbara Wenger/ Hans Philip Bushong and Anna Eva Hergart/ Hans John Bushong and Barbara Bushong (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Daryl Bushong/ William Marion Bushong and Velma Bonita Oman/ Claudius Ellsworth Bushong and Ethel Verne Beck/ William Alexander Bushong and Ella Jane Wade/ Jacob Bushong II and Hannah Clark/ John Jacob Bushong and Eva Catharina Bossert/ John Bushong and Elizabeth Sprinkel/ Hans John Bushong and Barbara Bushong (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Jeffrey Franklin Bushong/ Forest Berlin Bushong and Dorothy Jane Griffith/ Emery Franklin Bushong and Elizabeth Sarah Wisman/ William Arthur Bushong and Eva Jane Pifer/ John M. Bushong and Lydia Haun/ Andrew Bushong and Elizabeth Calvert/ John Bushong V and Elizabeth Sprenkel/ Hans John Bushong and Barbara Bushong (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Descended from Johann Nicholas Bushong3

Conrad Bushong/ Otto Conrad Bushong and Retha Mae Bleam/ Kearney Holloween Bushong and Della B. Radle/ Ezram B. C. Bushong and Sarah Ellen Evans/ Lewis A. E. Bushong and Phoebe S. Haines/ John Bushong Jr. and Eleanor R. Rush/ John Bushong and Jenette Young Summers/ Anthony Andrew Bushong and Catherine Bushong/ Johann Nicholas Bushong and Anna Magdalena Schaffner (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Noel Bushong/ Doyle Franklin Bushong and Mildred Marie Spencer/ Harold Hamilton Bushong and Blanche I. M. Luna/ Marion Andrew Bushong and Nancy Ellen North/ James Sanford Bushong and Eletha Boyd Amyx/ Jacob Hamilton Bushong and Susan West Bryant/ John Andrew Bushong and Feraby White Hutchens/ George Bushong and Martha Davis/ Anthony Andrew Bushong and Catherine Bushong/ Johann Nicholas Bushong and Anna Magdalena Schaffner (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Herbert Wayne Bushong/ John Sanford Bushong and Jessie Mae Bledsoe/ James Newton Bushong and Samantha Ann Gallatin/ William Langston Bushong and Pricilla F. Amyx/ John Andrew Bushong and Feraby White Hutchens/ George Bushong and Martha Davis/ Anthony Andrew Bushong and Catherine Bushong/ Johann Nicholas Bushong and Anna Magdalena Schaffner (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.

Joe Lynn Bushong/ Doin Hulett Bushong and Rexie Ray James/ Greenville Warner Bushong and Cora Alice Barker/ James Sanford Bushong and Eletha Boyd Amyx/ John Andrew Bushong and Feraby White Hutchens/ George Bushong and Martha Davis/ Anthony Andrew Bushong and Catherine Bushong/ Johann Nicholas Bushong and Anna Magdalena Schaffner (the immigrants)/ Hanss John Boschung (III) and Anna Maria Boschung of Switzerland, immigrated before 1719.
      


Moses Walker's Most Recent Common Ancestor Calculator,
click to enlarge or visit it here
All rights reserved.
      
The Generational Range

By counting the number of generations for each test participant, from Hans John Bushong III, these are the findings.

    Hans' descendants
  • Fred is 9 generations from the MRCA
  • Gary is 8 generations from the MRCA
  • Herbert is 8 generations from the MRCA
  • Daryl is 8 generations from the MRCA
  • Jeff is 9 generations from the MRCA
    Johann Nicholas' descendants
  • Conrad is 9 generations from the MRCA
  • Noel is 10 generations from the MRCA
  • Herbert Wayne is 8 generations from the MRCA
  • Joe is 9 generations from the MRCA

What are the odds?

With Hans John Bushong III identified as the MRCA, a generational range of between 8 and 10, can be easily determined. Utilizing Moses Walker's excellent MRCA Probability chart, the average of all participants' probable relationship to the most recent comon ancestor is 94.26%.13 That's an over 94% chance that they are related through the same mutual ancestor - Hans John Bushong III. Further, when that probability is combined with existing genealogy, it results in very high confidence levels. The evidence is irrefutable, and since the participants are from the lines of Hans John IV and the line Johann Nicholas through Andreas, it proves what many genealogists already thought, but were lacking evidence...

  1. Johann Nicholas Boschung and Hans Bushong/Boschung IV are descended from the same ancestor.
  2. The Andreas who arrived, with father, Johann Nicholas Boschung, on the Pink "John and William" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1732 is the same Andreas, who returned in 1754 to Delaware on the Ship "Recovery". The same who was husband to Catherine, and died in Kentucky around 1791, and fathered the four successful lines of John, Jacob, George and Henry Bushong.
  3. Andrew is a proven son of Johann Nicholas Boschung and a grandson of Father Boschung.14;15


      
Portion of Moses Walker's MRCA Calculator,
visit it here
-All rights reserved.

The Only Colonial American Bushong Family

       There is only one Bushong family that immigrated to America in the Colonial period, and they did it in three voyages (not counting Andrew's return to Europe and back). Hans John Boschung and Andrew/Andreas Boschung, son of Johann Nicholas Boschung, are from the same family tree. In light of the evidence, which has a greater than 94% confidence level or probability, it's safe to say, Nicholas and Hans are brothers descended from Father Boschung, who we now know to be Hans John Bushong III.

So with the existing Bushong genealogy and the DNA evidence, any family trees and lines can be united, which they are, in the Bushong United Family Tree. All Bushongs in America are related. Over 7000 descendants, all in one grand tree. Hans and Johann Nicholas are related and now connected to John Bushong III, the earliest Bushong immigrant. However, remember, thousands of descendants of Bushong daughters are not in the tree, as the focus has mainly been on those named Bushong.

Are there other Bushong lines in America? Of course. Though nowhere near the size of the Colonial Bushong, and totaling less than maybe 100. In the second half of the 19th century, one line came from Nova Scotia, Canada, while others from Germany and Europe. One even immigrated from Greece. Some immigrated with the same surname spelling from Canada, while others anglicized names like Buschen and even Buzinakis into the traditional Bushong spelling. Also, there's at least one line of black Bushongs, who descend from slaves and quite possibly their white Bushong master. DNA could certainly help unravel that. One family line that was not related are the Bosangs. They were disproved through genealogy and civic records, yet were still tested and of course, didn't match Colonial Bushong DNA or Haplotype. Also, there were others, as could be expected, and testing subsequently identified some Bushongs (five so far) who are related to the two brothers, through early adoption or other means. But the adoptions occurred many generations ago and can not affect their descendant's Bushong lineage, as is true of the first Boschung, who was born to parents with a different surname. Read Article They now merely have a traditional Bushong family tree, and at the most, they may have an "*" asterisk added to that particular line. Because after all, born a Bushong means you are a Bushong.


References
  1. The Only Surviving Line of Colonial American Bushongs (original), by Rick Bushong, published March 5, 2012, viewable here.
  2. The Bushong in 1930 U.S. Census are Charted
  3. To Search Entire Bushong United Tree at RootsWeb
  4. The Theory of the Two Surviving Colonial American Bushong Families, by Rick Bushong, publish September 18, 2011, viewable here
  5. A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names Hans Boschung, page 68
  6. Pennsylvania German Pioneers, by Ralph Beaver Strassburger. Norristown, Pennsylvania: Published 1934, Vol. 1, page 660
  7. A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names page 84
  8. Boschong[sic] List Notice, published June 30, 2015, viewable here.
  9. Family Tree DNA
  10. Family Tree DNA Bushong Group
  11. Wikipedia R1A1A
  12. Wikipedia Haplogroup
  13. Moses Walker's Most Recent Common Ancestor Calculator
  14. Actual Waldfischbach Church Records, Kaiserslautern District, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
  15. Register zum 1. Kirchenbuch der Reformierten Pfarrei Waldfischbach (Holzlandkirchenbuch) 1684 - 1721. (Register for the 1st church book of the Reformed parish Waldfischbach), published 1988, by Dietmar Meyer. Compliments of the author.

Corrections and additions are always welcome.
Please note: there is no one charted in the Bushong United Family Tree, who has the first name of "Living". The Tree's current host, RootsWeb, filters the first names and details out of those individuals not marked deceased or born after 1930. Since the participants are clearly living, their first name appears as "Living". But the full uncensored GEDCOM has the names and any details that have been located or provided.
Disclaimer: As there is a great probability the MRCA is John Boschung III, inversely speaking,
there is a slight probability that the MRCA is an older generation.

Disclaimer: This article is based entirely on previously released and published details about the DNA project.

Disclaimer: This article should in no way be construed as an endorsement of FTDNA or this particular DNA project. To read more about the project, click here.


This Article is Copyright ©2015 by Rick Bushong and Commercial Use is Prohibited.
Non-commercial use is allowed with permission or if entire copyright is included.





Bushong United is Copyright ©2019 by Rick Bushong any Commercial Use is Prohibited.
Non-commercial use is allowed with permission or if entire copyright is included.


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